Saltcorner
By Bob Goemans
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Piscine 

The 'LIVING' Marine Aquarium Manual

Basic and Advanced Husbandry for the 'Modern' Marine Aquarium

by Bob Goemans

Produced and Published by Salt Corner ®

(All rights reserved)

ISBN 978-0-615-60306-3

Copyright © 2012

About the Author

Acknowledgments

Introduction


Table of Contents



Section One — The Planning Phase


Chapter 1. The Groundwork

Personal Viewpoints & Environmental Concerns

The Big Question

System Methodology

Themes & Goals

Fish-Only

Reef System

Easy Reef

Specialized Environments

Reef Crest

Mangrove

Seagrass

More Choices

Lagoon

Platform Reef

Sand Zone

Reef Gorge

Caves, Holes & Ledges

Reef Slope


Chapter 2. Miscellaneous Equipment

Aquariums

Glass

Disadvantages

Advantages

Acrylic

Disadvantages

Advantages

Stands

Wood

Metal

Other Materials

Leveling and Testing

Location

Preparation

Sumps

Building a Plywood Aquarium

Temperature Control

Heaters

Chillers

Flow Through

Remote Probe

Nano Cooling

Evaporation Coolers

Supplemental Cooling

Thermometers

Dosing Equipment

Water Pumps/Powerheads

Wavemakers

Air Pumps

Emergency Power


Chapter 3 - Water Processing Equipment

Calcium/Limestone/Kalkreaktors

General Function

Reactor Body

Water Pump

Bubble Counter

Check Valve

Regulator

Supply Bottle

Tubing

Leak Checking

Design Updates

Effluent Parameter Control

Reverse Osmosis

Deionization

Sterilization Equipment

Ultraviolet Sterilization

Ozone

Ultraviolet Ozonizer

Corona Discharge Ozonizer

Air Dryer

Redox Controller

Adding Ozone Directly

Oxygen/Ozone Reactor


Chapter 4 - Filtration Equipment

Undergravel Filter

Operation Parameters

Trickle Filter

Skimmer Box/Prefilter

Trickle Section

Trickle Packing (Bio-Balls)

Double Layered Spiral (DLS)

Bio-Bale Media

Features

Canister Filter

Hang-on-Tank (HOT) Power Filter

Fluidized Bed Filters

Corner Box Filter

Sponge Filter

Protein Skimmer

Overview

Adsorption Process

Skimmer History

The Process

Classifications

Cocurrent

Counter-current

Power Skimmers

Design & Selection

Seawater Skimmers

Freshwater Skimmers

General Questions/Comments

Foam Production

Installation

Denitrifying Filters

Coil Denitrator

N-Forcer

Sulfur Reactors


Chapter 5 - Lighting Equipment

Intensity

Judging Light Intensity

Lumens

Lux

PAR

PUR

Spectrum

C.I.E. Color Triangle

Color Temperature- Chromaticity/Kelvin

Color Rendering Index

Watts

Glitter Lines

Ultraviolet (UV) Light

Black Light

Skylights

Aquarium Lamps

Fluorescent

Metal Halide

Moonlights

Light Emitting Diode (LED)

Halogen Lamps

Ballasts

Lighting Points of Interest

Lighting Summation


Chapter 6 - Materials & Products

Construction Materials

Piping

PVC (Polyvinyl chloride)

Vinyl Hose

Module Piping

Plumbing Accessories

Hose Clamps

Bulkhead Fittings

Other PVC Fittings

Adapters

Barb Fittings

Caps and Plugs

Couplings

Elbows

Reducer Bushings

Tees

Unions

Valves

Ball Valve

Check Valve

Gate Valve

Substrates/Live Sand

Substrate Materials

Aragonite

Crushed Coral

Oyster Shell/Crushed Shell

Oolith Sand

Calcite

Dolomite

Coral Sand

Industrial Sands

Silica Sand

Grain Size

Bed Depths

Sand Sifters

Live Rock

Importance

Natural Environment Appearance

Filtration Benefits

Natural Food Source

Buffering Capability

Selection

Fresh Rock

Plant Rock

Calcareous Rock

Base Rock

Branching Rock

Cured Rock

Seeded Rock

Cultured Rock

Do-It-Yourself-Rock

Artificial Rock/Manmade

Processing

Aquascaping

Backdrops

Locale and Scale

Rockwork

Polyurethane Foam

Coral Trees

Eggcrate

Maintenance Products

Activated Carbon

Activating Process

Methodology

Selection

Technical Attributes

General Attributes

Actual Usage

Molecular Absorption Filters

Phosphate Adsorption Media

Nitrate and Phosphate Reducing Products

Nitrex Box

Custom-made Unit

AZNO3

PhosBuster™Pro

NO3-PO4-X

Additives/Supplements


Section Two — Filtration

Section Three — Seawater


Chapter 9 - Water: The Basics

Freshwater

Drinking Water

Distilled Water

Bottled Drinking Water

Well Water

Water Softening

Chlorine/Chloramine

Natural Seawater

Using Natural Seawater

Seawater’s Dissolved Components

Major Elements (Over 100ppm)

Calcium

Chloride

Magnesium

Potassium

Sodium

Sulfur

Minor Elements (1 – 100 ppm)

Boron

Bromide

Fluoride

Strontium

Trace Elements (Under 1 ppm)

Aluminum

Antimony

Arsenic

Barium

Chromium

Cobalt

Copper

Iodine

Iron

Lithium

Manganese

Mercury

Molybdenum

Phosphorus

Silicon

Vanadium

Zinc

Gases

Oxygen

Carbon dioxide

Hydrogen sulfide

Sulfur Cycle

Nitrogen

Methane


Chapter 10 – Seawater Management

Synthetic Seawater

Selecting a Salt Mix

DIY Salt Mix

Seawater Maintenance

A Day At The Beach

pH

Ammonia /Ammonium

Nitrite

Nitrate

Salt Content

Salinity

Specific Gravity

Refractiveness

Conductivity

Osmotic Balance

Element Supplements

Magnesium

Strontium

Iodine

Trace Elements Additives

Test Kits & Record Keeping


Chapter 11 - Seawater Buffer System

Alkalinity

Calcium

Maintenance

Water Changes

Calcareous Substrates

Two-Part Additives

Calcium Chloride

Chelated Calcium

Calcium/Limestone/Kalkreaktors

Substrate Media

Kalkwasser

Control Techniques

Manual Dosing

Drip/Evaporation Method

Carbon Dioxide Injection

Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Generator

Milky-white Method

Nilsen Reactor

Vinegar Additions

Gerbil System

Intravenous (IV) Bag

S-K Doser

Balling Method

Calcium Blocks

Separate Buffers

Testing Calcium

The Aragonite Solution

Solving pH, Calcium, Magnesium and/or Alkalinity Problems

High pH Values

Low pH values

Calcium and/or Alkalinity problems

Calcium Supplements vs. Aquarium Size/Complexity

Seawater Summation


Section Four — System Husbandry

Section Five — Animal Selection & Husbandry


Chapter 14 - Animal Husbandry


The Fishes

Upfront Wisdom

Physical Size

Nutritional Needs

Compatibility

Shipping Bags

Selecting Healthy Specimens

Acclimation

Less than 2 Hour Acclimation

2 to 4 Hour Acclimation

Overnight Shipments

Quarantine

Hospital Tank

Freshwater Dip

Hyposalinity

Environmental Conditions

Osmoregulation

Temperature

Carrying Capacity

Lighting

Stress

Nutrition Requirements

Categories

Composition

Proteins

Fats & Oils - Lipids

Sugars & Starches - Carbohydrates

Vitamins

Water Soluble

Fat Soluble

Minerals

Fiber

Foods & Feeding

Immunostimulants

Garlic

Storage

Feeding Frequencies

Fish Foods

Dry

Freeze-dried Foods

Flake/Granule/Pellet

Spirulina

Krill

Nori

Feeding Blocks

Live/Fresh

Copepods

Amphipods

Brine Shrimp

DIY Live Brine Shrimp

Feeder Fish

Plankton

Rotifers

Worms

Tubifex (Red/Black)

Earthworms

Other Terrestrial Foods

Fish Flesh

Shellfish

Leafy Foods

Macroalgae

People Green Foods

Lettuce

Broccoli/Spinach

Frozen

Mysis Shrimp

DIY Frozen Foods

Maladies & Treatments

Fish Immune system

Warning Signs

Short-Term

Long-Term

Medicine Usage

Traditional Therapeutic Products

Hydrogen Peroxide

Malachite Green

Methylene Blue

Potassium Permanganate

Copper

Ionic

Chelated

Epson Salt

Formalin

Diseases & Disorders

Parasitic infestations

Protozoans

Flagellated

Hole-in-the-Head – Hexamita

Velvet Disease - Amyloodinium ocellatum

Ciliates

Marine Ich - Cryptocaryon irritans

Clownfish Disease - Brooklynella hostilis

Red Band Disease - Uronema marinum

Advanced Treatment for Flagellated & Ciliated Organisms

Metazoans

Black Spot Disease

Viral Diseases

Nodule Disease - Lymphocystis

Bacterial Infections

Wasting Away Disease/Tuberculosis

Other Causes

Ammonia/Nitrate Poisoning

Toxic Tank Syndrome

Head & Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)

Gas Bubble Disease

Popeye

Sterilizing the Aquarium

Summation



The Corals/Invertebrates

Coral Nutrition

Placement

Bleaching

Rapid Tissue Necrosis (RTN)

Brown Jelly

Black-band Disease (BBD)

Other Coral Maladies in the Wild

Sea Fan Fungus

White-band Disease (WBD)

White Plague Disease (WPD)

White Pox (WP)

Yellow-band Disease

Yellow Blotch Disease

Red-band Disease (RBD)

Coral Aggression

Mariculture/Aquaculture

DIYS Culturing


Chapter 15 – Choosing the Right Fishes For Your System Goal

Introduction

Anemonefishes

Angelfishes

Anthias

Assessors & Comets

Bannerfishes

Batfishes

Blennies

Boxfishes/Trunkfishes/Cowfishes

Butterflyfishes

Cardinalfishes

Catfishes

Coral Crouches

CuskEels

Damselfishes

Dartfishes/Wormfishes

Dottybacks

Dragonets/Mandarinfishes

Drums & Croakers

Eels/Morays

Filefishes

Flashlight Fishes

Flatfishes

Flatheads

Frogfishes

Fusiliers

Goatfishes

Gobies

Grammas

Groupers/Hinds/Soapfishes

Hamlets

Hawkfishes

Helmut Gurnards

Jacks

Jawfishes

Lionfishes

Livebearing Brotula

Lizardfishes

Monos

Moorish Idol

Morwongs

Parrotfishes

Pineapple/Pinecone Fishes

Pipefishes

Porcupinefishes & Burrfishes

Pufferfishes

Rabbitfishes

Rays

Reef Basslets

Sand Perches

Scats

Scorpionfishes

Sea Moths

Seabasses

Seahorses & Weedy-Leafy Seadragons

Sharks

Shrimpfishes

Snappers

Soldierfishes & Squirrelfishes

Spinecheeks

Surgeonfishes/Tangs

Sweepers

Sweetlips & Grunts

Tilefishes

Triggerfishes

Trumpetfishes

Walking Batfish

Waspfishes

Wrasses


Chapter 16 - Coral Selection

Introduction

Phylum Cnidaria - Corals

The Soft Corals (Class Anthozoa)

Subclass Octocorallia

Order Helioporacea

Blue Coral

Order Alcyonacea

Clove Polyps

Star Polyps

Organ Pipe Corals

Leather Corals

Alcyonium

Cladiella

Lobophytum

Sarcophyton

Sinularia

Christmas Tree Coral/Medusa Coral

African Tree Coral

Carnation Corals

Waving Hand Coral

Xenia

Gorgonians

Family Acanthogorgia

Family Anthothelidae

Yellow/Red/Orange Finger Sea Rod

Family Paramuriceidae

Red Gorgonian

Family Plexauridae

Silver Sea Whip

Purple Frilly

Sea Rod

Order Pennatulacea

Sea Pens



Subclass Hexacorallia

Order Actiniaria

Sea Anemones

Family Actinidae

Condylactis

Rose Anemone

Family Stichodactylidae

Ritteri Anemone

Family Aiptasiidae

Rock/Glass Anemones

Majano Anemones

Curleycue/Ringed Anemones

Order Corallimorpharia

Family Corallimorphidae

Orange Ball Anemone

Families Discosomatidae & Ricordeidae

Mushroom Corals

Order Zoanthidea

Zoanthids



Subclass Ceriantipatharia

Order Ceriantharia

Family Ceriantharia

Tube Anemones



Class Scyphozoa

Order Semaeostomeae

Jellyfish

Family Cyaneidae

Moon Jellyfish



The Stony Corals

Subclass Hexacorallia

Order Scleractinia

Family Pocilloporidae

Pocillopora

Seriatopora

Stylophora

Family Acroporidae

Acropora

Montipora

Family Poritidae

Goniopora

Porites

Alveopora

Family Siderastreidae

Psammocora

Family Agariciidae

Pachyseris

Pavona

Family Fungiidae

Fungia

Cycloseris

Heliofungia

Slipper Coral

Family Oculinidae

Galaxea

Family Mussidae

Acanthastrea/Micromussa

Blastomussa

Cynarina

C. deshayesiana

C. lacrymalis

Lobophyllia

Scolymia

Family Merulinidae

Hydnophora

Family Faviidae

Caulastrea

Diploastrea

Favia & Favites

Platygyra

Family Pectiniidae

Echinophyllia

Mycedium

Family Trachyphylliidae

Trachyphyllia

Family Euphyllidae

Catalaphyllia

Euphyllia

Nemenzophyllia - Fox Coral

Bubble Coral

Physogyra – Poor Man’s Bubble Coral

Family Dendrophylliidae

Tubastraea

Turbinaria

Duncanopsammia

Dendrophyllia

Family Flabellidae

Rhizo Coral

Family Meandrinidae

Maze Coral


Chapter 17 – Other Invertebrate Selection

Introduction



Phylum Arthropoda

Barnacles

Gooseneck Barnacles

Volcano Barnacles

Crustaceans

Family Hippolytidae

Lysmata

Saron

Thor

Family Alpheidae

Pistol Shrimp

Family Gnathophyllidae

Harlequin/Clown Shrimp

Family Palaemonidae

Periclimenes holthuisi

Family Rhynchocinetidae

Camel/Dancing Shrimp

Family Stenopodidae

Banded Coral/Boxer Shrimp

Mantis Shrimp

Family Hemisquillidae

Peacock Mantis

Clawed Lobsters

Family Enoplometopidae

Polka-Dot/Pink Spotted Lobster

Red Lobster/Hawaiian Lobster

Hermit Crabs

Family Diogenidae

Dardanus

Striped Hermit

Calcinus

Blue-legged/Tri-colored Hermit

Scarlet Leg/Red Legged/Scarlet Reef Hermit

Family Paguridae

Phimochirus

Porcelain Crabs

Family Porcellanidae

Neopetrolisthes

True Crabs

Family Hepatidae

Shamefaced Crab

Family Lithodidae

Golden King Crab

Family Plaqusiidae

Sally Lightfoot/Nimble Crab

Family Mithracidae

Emerald Crab

Family Majiidae

Decorator Crabs

Spider/Arrow Crab

Family Trapeziidae

Coral Crabs

Family Xanthidae

Boxer/Pom-Pom Crab

Bristle Crab

Zoisimus



Phylum Chelicerata

Family Limulidae

Horseshoe Crab



Phylum Mollusca

Class Bivalvia - Clams

Family Limidae

Flame Scallop

Family Tridacnidae

Tridacna Clams



Class: Polyplacophora

Family Chitonidae

Chiton Snails



Class Gastropoda - Snails

Family Fisurellidae

Keyhole Limpets

Family Haliotidae

Abalone

Family Neritidae

Nerita Snails

Family Trochidae

Red Foot Moon Snail

Margarita Snail

Trochus Snail

Family Turbinidae

Astraea Snails

Turbo Snail

Family Stomatellidae

Dove Snail

Family Architectonicidae

Box/Sundial Snail

Family Cerithiidae

Cerith/Tower Snails

Family Cypraeidae

Cowries

Family Ovulidae

Flamingo Tongue

Family Strombidae

Conch

Family Vermetidae

Tube Snail

Family Buccinidae

Bumble Bee Snail

Family Conidae

Cone Snails

Family Eulimidae

Blue Linckia Snail

Family Fasciolariidae

Tulip Snails

Family Muricidae

Murex Snails

Family Nassariidae

Mud Snails



Sea Hares

Family Aplysiidae

Spotted Sea Hare



Sea Slugs

Family Elysiidae

Florida Lettuce Slug

Nudibranchia

Family Scyllaeidae

Aiptasia Eating Nudibranch



Class Cephalopoda - Octopuses, Squids, Cuttlefish and Nautilus

Family Octopodidae

Blue Ringed Octopus

Two Spotted Octopus

Family Nautilidae

Nautilus/Chambered Nautilus



Phylum Echinodermata

Class Crinoidea - Sea Lilies/Feather Stars

Family Comasteridae

Schlegel’s/Black & Gold Feather Star



Class Asteroidea - Starfish/Sea Stars

Family Astropectinidae

Sand Shifting Star

Family Asterinidae

Fiji Star

Family Ophidiasteridae

Fromia

Icon Star

Blue Star

Family Oreasteridae

Chocolate Chip Sea Star



Class Ophiuroidea – Brittle Stars

Family Ophiodermatidae

Brittle Stars



Class Echinoidea – Urchins

Family Cidaridae

Pencil/Mine Urchin

Family Diadematidae

Hatpin/Black Long-spined Urchin

Double-spine/Hatpin Urchin

Family Strongylocentrotidae

Purple Urchins

Family Temnopleuridae

Blue Tuxedo Urchin

Salt & Pepper Urchin

Family Toxopneustidae

Priest-Hat Urchin



Class Holothurioidea - Sea Cucumbers

Family Cucumariidae

Yellow Cucumber

Sea Apples

Family Holothuriidae

Holothuria

Spiny Pink Sea Cucumber

Family Stichopodidae

Black/Geenfish Cucumber

Family Synaptidae

Red-ring Worm Cucumber



Phylum Porifera - Sponges

Class Demospongiae – Most Sponges

Family Chondrillidae

Chicken Liver Sponge

Family Coppatiidae

Yellow Encrusting Sponge

Family Clionidae

Red Boring Sponge

Boring Sponge

Family Axinellidae

Yellow/Red Lattice Sponge

Orange Paddle/Fan/Ear Sponge

Family Chalinidae

Blue Sponge

Red Tree Sponge

Family Ircinidae

Stinker Sponge

Family Agelasida

Candy Cane Sponge



Class Calcarea – Calcareous Sponges

Family Clathrinidae

Yellow Calcareous Sponge



Phylum Chordata - Tunicates

Class Ascidiacea

Family Clavelinidae

Pom-Pom Tunicate

Family Polycitoridae

Eudistoma angolanum

Family Didemnidae

Didemnum molle

Family Diazonidae

Blue Sea Squirt

Family Pyuridae

Golden Sea Squirt



Phylum Annelida – Segmented Worms

Class Polychaeta

Family Sabellidae

Duster Cluster

Feather Dusters

Family Serpulidae

Christmas Tree Worms

Magnificent Tubeworm/Co-Co Worm

Family Amphinomidae

Bristle Worms

Family Terebellidae

Spaghetti Worms

Family Chaetopteridae

Thread Worm



Phylum Platyhelminthes - Flat Worms


Section Six — In Closing

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