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By Bob Goemans
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The 'LIVING' Marine Aquarium Manual

Basic and Advanced Husbandry for the 'Modern' Marine Aquarium

by Bob Goemans

Measurements & Conversions

How many times have you been requested to add one milliliter of something or three grams of something or wondered about how to calculate measures of other substances? Probably quite often. Since no book would be complete without various tables of conversions for liquids, solids, volumes, weights, and others, have assembled the following for your benefit:

Liquid Measures
1 Teaspoon = 5 milliliters
" = 100 drops
" = 5 cc
1 Tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
1 Fluid ounce = 6 teaspoons
" " = 2 tablespoons
" " = 0.062 pint
" " = 0.031 quart
" " = 0.0078 gallon
" " = 29.6 milliliters
" " = 0.029 liters
" " = 1.8 cubic inches
1 Pint = 473.2 milliliters
" = 0.57 liter
" = 16 fluid ounces
" = 0.5 quart
" = 0.125 gallon
1 Cup = 48 teaspoons
" = 16 tablespoons
" = 8 ounces
" = 237 milliliters
1 Liter = 203 teaspoons
" = 67.6 tablespoons
" = 33.8 fluid ounces
" = 4.23 cups
" = 2.11 pints
" = 1.06 quarts
" = 0.264 gallon
" = 1000 milliliters
1 Milliliter = 20 drops
" = 0.034 fluid ounce
" = 0.2 teaspoons
" = 0.066 tablespoon
" = 0.002 pint
" = 0.001 quart
" = 0.0003 gallon
" = 0.001 liter
1 Gallon = 128 ounces
1 Imperial Gallon = 1.2 U.S. Gallon

Volume/Surface Area
1 Cubic inch of water = 16.39 milliliter
" = 0.016 liter
" = 0.55 fluid ounce
" = 0.035 pint
" = 0.017 quart
1 cu. foot of water = 7.5 gallons
1 square cm of water = 0.16 square inches
1 square meter = 10.76 square feet
= 1.2 square yards
1 square foot = 144 square inches
= 0.09 square meters
1 square yard = 9 square feet
= 0.81 square meters

Concentrations
1 % solution = 38 gm/gal
" = 38 ml/gal
" = 1 oz/3 quarts
" = 1.3 oz/gal
" = 10 gm/l
" = 1 gm/100ml
" = 10ml/l
1 ppm = one second of time in 11.6 days
1 ppm = 1 teaspoon in 1,302 gallons

Weight
1 Grain = 64.8 milligrams
1 Dram = 1.77 grams
1 Gram = 1 milliliter of water
" = 15.4 grains
" = 0.034 fluid ounce
" = 1000 mg
1 milligram = 0.001 grams
1 Pound = 16 oz
= 454 g
1 Kilo = 1000 grams

Length
1 Millimeter = 0.03937 inch
1 Centimeter = 0.3937 inch
1 Meter = 39.37 inches
1 Micron = 1/1000 mm (0.000038 inch)
1 nanometer = 1 billionth of a meter
1 Foot = 30.48 cm
= 0.3 meters
1 Yard = 3 feet
= 0.91 meters

Light/Electricity
1 Lumen = 10.76 Lux
1 Foot Candle = 1 Lumen
1 Lux = 0.09299 Foot Candle/Lumen
watts = volts x amps
amps = volts/watts
1 amp = 120 watts at 120 volts

Alkalinity
meq/1 CaCO3 (ppm) dKH
0.00 0.00 0.00
0.05 2.50 0.14
0.10 5.00 0.28
0.15 7.50 0.42
0.20 10.00 0.56
0.25 12.50 0.70
0.30 15.00 0.84
0.35 17.50 0.98
0.40 20.00 1.12
0.45 22.50 1.26
0.50 25.00 1.40
0.55 27.50 1.54
0.60 30.00 1.68
0.65 32.50 1.82
0.70 35.00 1.96
0.75 37.50 2.10
0.80 40.00 2.24
0.85 42.50 2.38
0.90 45.00 2.52
0.95 47.50 2.66
1.00 50.00 2.80
1.10 55.00 3.08
1.20 60.00 3.36
1.30 65.00 3.64
1.40 70.00 3.92
1.50 75.00 4.20
1.60 80.00 4.48
1.70 85.00 4.76
1.80 90.00 5.04
1.90 95.00 5.32
2.00 100.00 5.60
2.10 105.00 5.88
2.20 110.00 6.16
2.30 115.00 6.44
2.40 120.00 6.72
2.50 125.00 7.00
2.60 130.00 7.28
2.70 135.00 7.56
2.80 140.00 7.84
2.90 145.00 8.12
3.00 150.00 8.40
3.10 155.00 8.68
3.20 160.00 8.96
3.30 165.00 9.24
3.40 170.00 9.52
3.50 175.00 9.80
3.60 180.00 10.08
3.70 185.00 10.36
3.80 190.00 10.64
3.90 195.00 10.92
4.00 200.00 11.20
4.20 210.00 11.76
4.40 220.00 12.32
4.60 230.00 12.88
4.80 240.00 13.44
5.00 250.00 14.00

Calculate Gallons

To calculate number of gallons in an aquarium multiply in inches, length by width by height and divide by 231.

Calculate Sand Depth

To calculate the number of pounds of sand needed to cover the bottom of the aquarium at the selected depth, multiply, in inches, length by width by selected sand depth and then multiply by 0.0579.

Ammonia

To calculate the amount of toxic ammonia (NH3), the total ammonia (NH3 + NH4), must be multiplied by a factor selected from the chart below using the pH and temperature from your aquarium. Test the aquarium water for ammonia. Read aquarium pH and temperature. Find factor and multiply to find the amount of true ammonia, as all test kits result in a reading that adds ammonium and ammonia together.

pH Temp 72F Temp 75F Temp 79F Temp 82F Temp 86F
7.0 .0046 .0052 .0060 .0069 .0080
7.2 .0072 .0083 .0098 .0110 .0126
7.4 .0114 .0131 .0150 .0173 .0198
7.6 .0179 .0206 .0236 .0271 .0310
7.8 .0281 .0322 .0370 .0423 .0482
8.0 .0438 .0502 .0574 .0654 .0743
8.2 .0676 .0772 .0880 .0998 .1129
8.4 .1031 .1171 .1326 .1495 .1678

Conductivity (at 77ºF/25ºC)

45.3 mS/ cm 1.020
46.5 mS/ cm 1.021
48.7 mS/ cm 1.022
50.1 mS/ cm 1.023
51.5 mS/ cm 1.024
52.9 mS/ cm 1.025

Density/Specific Gravity to Salinity

Density / Specific Gravity Salinity
1.018 25
1.019 26
1.020 27
1.021 29
1.022 30
1.023 31
1.024 32
1.025 34
1.026 35
1.027 36
1.028 38

Calcium

Ca (ppm) CaCO3 (ppm) KH°
0.00 0.00 0.00
5.00 12.50 0.70
10.00 25.00 1.40
15.00 37.50 2.10
20.00 50.00 2.80
25.00 62.50 3.50
30.00 75.00 4.20
35.00 87.50 4.90
40.00 100.00 5.60
45.00 112.50 6.30
50.00 125.00 7.00
55.00 137.50 7.70
60.00 150.00 8.40
65.00 162.50 9.10
70.00 175.00 9.80
75.00 187.50 10.50
80.00 200.00 11.20
85.00 212.50 11.90
90.00 225.00 12.60
95.00 237.50 13.30
100.00 250.00 14.00
110.00 275.00 15.40
120.00 300.00 16.80
130.00 325.00 18.20
140.00 350.00 19.60
150.00 375.00 21.00
160.00 400.00 22.40
170.00 425.00 23.80
180.00 450.00 25.20
190.00 475.00 26.60
200.00 500.00 28.00
210.00 525.00 29.40
220.00 550.00 30.80
230.00 575.00 32.20
240.00 600.00 33.60
250.00 625.00 35.00
260.00 650.00 36.40
270.00 675.00 37.80
280.00 700.00 39.20
290.00 725.00 40.60
300.00 750.00 42.00
320.00 800.00 44.80
340.00 850.00 47.60
360.00 900.00 50.40
380.00 950.00 53.20
400.00 1000.00 56.00
420.00 1050.00 58.80
440.00 1100.00 61.60
460.00 1150.00 64.40
480.00 1200.00 67.20
500.00 1250.00 70.00

Dissolved Oxygen at Saturation (NSW)

TEMPERATURE (F) TEMPERATURE (C) DISSOLVED OXYGEN PPM
59 15 8.1
61 16 7.9
63 17 7.8
64 18 7.6
66 19 7.5
68 20 7.4
70 21 7.2
72 22 7.1
73 23 7.0
75 24 6.9
77 25 6.8
79 26 6.6
81 27 6.5
82 28 6.4
84 29 6.3
86 30 6.2

Temperature

Fahrenheit Centigrade
59 15
60 16
61 16
62 17
63 17
64 18
65 18
66 19
67 19
68 20
69 21
70 21
71 22
72 22
73 23
74 23
75 24
76 24
77 25
78 26
79 26
80 27
81 27
82 28
83 28
84 29
85 29
86 30
87 31
88 31
89 32
90 32

Seawater Composition

Elements Constituent Concentration (ppm)
unless otherwise noted
Major (Over 100 ppm) Chloride - Cl 18,980
  Sodium - Na 10,560
  Sulphur - S 884
  Sulfate - SO2-4 2560
  Magnesium - Mg 1280
  Calcium - Ca 412
  Potassium - K 380
  Bicarbonate 126
Minor (1-100 ppm) Bromide - Br 65
  Strontium - Sr 8.5
  Boron - B 4.6
  Fluoride - F 1.4
  Carbon - C 28
Trace (Under 1 ppm) Rubidium - Rb 0.2
  Aluminum - Al 0.16 - 1.9
  Lithium - Li 0.1
* Barium - Ba 0.05
* Iodide - I 0.05
  Silicate - Si 0.04 - 8.6
  Nitrogen - N 0.03 - 0.9
* Zinc - Zn 0.005 - 0.014
  Lead - Pb 0.004 - 0.005
* Selenium - Se 0.004
* Arsenic - As 0.003 - 0.024
* Copper - Cu 0.001 - 0.09
Tin - Sn 0.003
** Iron - Fe 0.002 - 0.02
  Cesium - Cs 0.004
Manganese - Mn 0.001
* Phosphorous - P 0.001 - 0.10
** Thulium - Tm 0.0000002
  Mercury - Hg 0.0003
  Uranium - U 0.00015 - 0.0016
** Cobalt - Co 0.0001
* Nickel - Ni 0.0001 - 0.0005
  Radium - Ra 8 x 10-11
* Beryllium - Be 0.0000006
* Cadmium - Cd 0.0001
* Chromium - Cr 0.3 ppb
  Titanium - Ti 1.0 ppb
Molybdenium - Mo 0.1
** Vanadium - V 0.002
  Antimony - Sb 0.0003
  Gold - Au 0.000006
* Silver - Ag 0.0004
  Krypton - Kr 0.2 ppb
  Xenon - Xe 0.05 ppb
  Gallium - Ga 0.03 ppb
  Bismuth - Bi 0.02 ppb
  Zirconium - Zr 0.03 ppb
  Niobium - Nb 0.01 ppb
  Thallium - Tl 0.01 ppb
  Thorium - Th 0.01 ppb
  Hafnium - Hf 0.007 ppb
  Helium - He 0.0068 ppb
  Argon - Ar 4.3 ppb
  Neon - Ne 0.12 ppb
  Tungsten - W 0.1 ppb
* Germanium - Ge 0.05 ppb
  Rhenium - Re 0.004 ppb
** Lanthanium - La 0.003 ppb
** Neodymium - Nd 0.003 ppb
  Tantalum - Ta 0.003 ppb
  Yttrium - Y 0.0013 ppb
** Cerium - Ce 0.001 ppb
** Dysprosium - Dy 0.0009 ppb
** Erbium - Er 0.0008 ppb
** Ytterrbium - Yb 0.0008 ppb
** Gadolinium - Gd 0.0007 ppb
** Praseodymium - Pr 0.0006 ppb
** Scandium - Sc 0.0006 ppb
** Holmium - Ho 0.0002 ppb
** Lutetium - Lu 0.0002 ppb
  Indium - In 0.0001 ppb
** Terbium - Tb 0.0001 ppb
** Samarium - Sm 0.00005 ppb
** Europium - Eu 0.00001 ppb
  Protactinium - Pa 0.00000005 ppb
  Radon - Rn 0.000000000006 ppb
  Technetium - Tc ..............
  Ruthenium - Ru ...............
  Rhodium - Rh ...............
  Palladium - Pd ...............
  Osmium - Os ...............
  Iridium - Ir ...............
  Platinum - Pt ...............
  Astatine - At ...............
  Francium - Fr ...............
  Actinium - Ac ...............
Important Trace Elements

* Affected by nutrient processes

** Affected by chemical processes